“As of 2015, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide, with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases. This represents 8.3% of the adult population, with equal rates in both women and men.” [IDF]
So what is dm?
The Definition of DM is:
“DM or Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that relate to high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar are frequent urination, constant thirst and a heavier appetite. If you do not treat diabetes with diet and exercise you could cause complications ranging from ketoacidosis to cardiovascular disease or death. There’s a multitude of research and studies on the topic of DM. At ASCVS we suggest you first follow the guidelines of the ADA (American Diabetes Association)” [Diabetic Association]
Once you’ve become more informed on the nuances of DM, we suggest you follow a diet friendly for diabetics and a cardio-heavy fitness program that is low impact. Why low-impact? Generally, people who are insulin sensitive should focus on their bodies circulation. When you are training heavily for extended periods of time you also decrease your glycogen level tremendously, which in hand can cause you to need to refuel with carbohydrates. I suggest training no longer than 30 minutes at a time and no more than 2 times a day. It would be best suited to separate a 30-minute cardio session in the morning and a 30 minute weighted session in the afternoon. In the end, just being in the gym will benefit you greatly so do not stress too much of how long you are actually exercising in comparison to someone undiagnosed.
Let’s go over the three main types of diabetes mellitus.
Type 1: is due to the pancreas failing to produce enough insulin. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or IDDM we generally found in younger people.
In fact, the actual cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, despite what you may find on the internet. Is diabetes hereditary from grandparents? Not in every case but some studies have shown a correlation (which isn’t causation). Specifically, the HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 genes have been identified as possible factors in pancreatic failure. The HLA sequences are responsible for making proteins that your body needs for homeostasis.
Type 2: the prolonged insulin resistance causes Adult-onset diabetes. NIDDM is produced by cells not responding to insulin appropriately. The primary causes of NIDDM are excessive body weight and living a sedentary lifestyle with no exercise.
As a nation, we’re leading in patriotism and diabetes, it’s rather unfortunate. You’ll find yourself spending hundreds of dollars on supplies to accommodate an illness that is caused by an avoidable unhealthy lifestyle. Here at ASCVS, we promote a multitude of fitness programmes that require the least amount of investment, all they do require is time. ASCVS even offers a free fasting program because we care about your health!
Type 3: Gestational diabetes affects women who do not have a history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Many women who are pregnant discover they are diagnosed with type 3 gestational DM. This is completely avoidable, a symptom of your body’s placental hormones produce too much blood sugar. Resolve it within a few months with a healthy lifestyle.
The Other Type 3
Alzheimer’s disease or AD has effects to cell loss and abundant neurofibrillary tangles. Most importantly it affects energy metabolism which can affect glucose absorption in the brain.
“Currently, there is a rapid growth in the literature pointing toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD-type neurodegeneration, but this surge of new information is riddled with conflicting and unresolved concepts regarding the potential contributions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and obesity to AD pathogenesis.” [source]
Theirs four features to AD that relate to diabetes:
- T2DM causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and mental impairment.
- Adverse changes to brain insulin and IGF signals represent early and progressive issues related to the AD.
- EBD or Experimental Brain Diabetes produced by the intracerebral administration is similar to the AD.
- To treat EBD, we use insulin sensitizer agents which are the same drugs used to treat T2DM.
What you can conclude from these points is Type 3 Diabetes is essentially Alzheimer’s related blood glucose disorders that affect the brain. Also, research in both fields will aid in the treatment of DM 1, 2 and AD. What you can do for yourself is follow a healthy diet and stay active even in your older years. We can’t avoid all illness but doing your best to prevent this unfortunate disease means living a healthier lifestyle. Be sure to frequently check in with your primary care provider as well.